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Content in Creation of Israel: British Foreign Office Correspondence on Palestine and Transjordan, 1940-1948
Creation of Israel: British Foreign Office Correspondence on Palestine and Transjordan, 1940-1948 (Module 43)
The British Foreign Office Political Correspondence files on Palestine and Transjordan, 1940-1948 are essential for understanding the modern history of the Middle East, the establishment of Israel as a sovereign state, and the wider web of postwar international world politics. Early records in the collection focus on events in Palestine, Britain’s policy toward Palestine, and how the situation in Palestine affected relations with other nations. The files also survey the contours of Arab politics in the wider Middle East. Since the interests, rivalries, and designs of various Arab leaders were often played out with reference to Palestine, the documents provide insight into the complex and sometimes bloody Arab world. In the 1947-1948 period, this module explores the tensions within Anglo-American relations over the creation and recognition of Israel as a sovereign state. A large section of the material is devoted to United Nations deliberations on the Palestine question. The records also illuminate the political, philosophical, and personal fractures within and between both the Jewish and Arab communities from 1940-1948.
Covers massive refugee problem of Jews who wished to escape central European persecution. Discusses proposal for creation of second Jewish National Home in British Guiana. Includes data on population of British Guiana, pressing need for second Jewish National Home outside of Palestine, and practicality and costs of such scheme.
Covers meeting between Regent of Iraq (Abd al-Illah) and Amir Abdullah Ibn El-Hussein (Amir of Transjordan) at Rutbah in Iraq. Through various intelligence sources, this documents different Arab factions and touches upon differing motives and goals of King Ibn Saud, Amir Abdullah Ibn El-Hussein, and Nuri al-Said. Includes differing Arab conceptions of Arab federation of Palestine, Transjordan, and Iraq.
Covers illegal Jewish immigration to Palestine; reasons behind British policy in the Middle East; U.S. Jewish public reaction to quota restrictions on Jewish immigration to Palestine; and British governmental reaction to Free French statement regarding unlimited free Jewish immigration to Palestine.
Covers British government formulation of new Palestine policy. Includes reaction to and analysis of British ministers in Middle East to policy proposals of War Cabinet Committee on Palestine and Minister Resident in Middle East, probable Arab reactions, and international repercussions of British policy.
Covers formation of Anglo-American Committee of Enquiry including appointment of secretaries, descriptions and personal histories of U.S. members, financial and personnel requirements for British delegation, and draft announcement of personnel and committee responsibilities. Includes Jewish protest of and resolutions on new British policy, repercussions of Harry S. Truman's statement on Palestine, various schemes for Palestine solution by British public, prevention of illegal Jewish immigration, situation reports, Palestine government preparation for Anglo-American Committee of Enquiry, House of Lords debate on Jewish predicament, and other issues. .
Covers views on Palestine and opposition to Zionism by King Ibn Saud, Amir Abdullah Ibn El-Hussein, Regent of Iraq, King of Yemen, Lebanon, and Egypt. Includes binational solution by Judah L. Magnes, proposedJewish state in Germany, Chaim Weizmann on Jewish immigration to and Arab emigration from Palestine, pressure by Jewish Agency for representation at San Francisco Conference (UN) and for Jewish state creation, and other issues.
Covers internal divisions within U.S. Jewry over Zionism, resolutions of Zionist organizations in United States on Palestine and support for Jewish state, Zionist propaganda in United States and U.S. press on Zionism, and general U.S. Jewish public opinion. Includes Revisionist activities in United States; activities and protestations of Emanuel Celler, Peter H. Bergson, and Guy M. Gillette; U.S. Jewish education donations for Palestine; uproar over public release of contents of Harry S. Truman's letter to Clement Attlee regarding issuance of 100,000 Palestine immigration certificates; and other issues.
Covers Zionist activities, protests, and resolutions in Algeria, Argentina, Belgium, China, Egypt, Finland, Greece, Netherlands, Peru, Romania, and United States. Includes estimates by Warsaw Embassy on toll taken on Poland Jews by Holocaust, Claude R. Pepper and Joseph Stalin on anti-Semitism, population statistics of Jews in Egypt, Arab Feminist Congress protest of Zionism, Arab activities in Peru, Zionist propaganda spread by Jewish units of British Eighth Army in French North Africa, and other issues.
Covers illegal Jewish and Arab immigration into Palestine, Jewish immigration certificates, issuance of Palestinian citizenship certificates, and Jewish emigration from Palestine. Includes British efforts to prevent illegal Jewish immigration, British military intelligence, and situation reports.
Covers reports of Arab League granting greater representation to Palestine Arabs and Jewish Agency for Palestine protest, and Jewish Agency for Palestine concern with outcome of San Francisco Conference (UN). Includes detailed summary of Palestinian Arab political developments, with information on the Arab Higher Committee, the mufti of Jerusalem, and Arab public opinion. A fine example of the coverage of Palestine Arab politics is "Palestine Arab politics," pp. 52-55. This file contains a Colonial Office memorandum, dated 24 July 1945, which details the fractures and personalities involved in Palestine Arab politics.
Covers surrender of Mufti of Jerusalem (Haj Amin el-Husseini) and his entourage to France and subsequent British attempts to secure his extradition. Includes detention of Mufti by France, motions by France to return Mufti to Middle East in order to better reputation of France in Arab circles, British Cabinet decision to send Mufti and other Arab renegades to Seychelles as political prisoners if they were turned over, and other issues. This file contains a top secret memorandum by the Secretary of State for the Colonies entitled "Palestine Renegades," which details the Mufti's activities and outlines several possible avenues for his prosecution for war crimes and subversive activities during the Second World War. In the same file, there is a top secret letter from the High Commissioner for Palestine to the secretary of state for the colonies detailing the mufti's anti-British activities during the Second World War.
Covers planning for London meeting of Anglo- American Committee of Enquiry and possible committee visits to European countries; U.S. military flights to Palestine; Arab and Jewish reaction to quota extension for Jewish immigration; illegal immigration; boycott of Zionist goods by Arab countries; and other topics.
Covers Jewish activities, protests, and resolutions in Europe, Scandinavia, Central and South America, and United States. Includes in-depth analysis by Washington Embassy on U.S. Jewish activities, public opinion, press, and political influence; New York Consulate-General analysis of New Zionist Organization and Betar anti- British demonstrations; and questions concerning American League for a Free Palestine, Inc. tax exempt status in United States.
Covers British preparation for Transjordan independence and issues surrounding termination of Mandate and replacement by treaty. Includes visit of Amir Abdullah Ibn El- Hussein to United Kingdom for treaty negotiations; initial British drafts of Anglo-Transjordan Treaty including discussion of military considerations and provisions, British strategic interests in Transjordan, and need for continual influence on Arab Legion; reaction of King Ibn Saud to independence and his claim to Aqaba and Maan areas; various Zionist reactions to independence of Transjordan; leakage to press of announcement by Ernest Bevin to UN; concerns for religious freedom in independent Transjordan; situation reports; and other issues.
Covers Zionist activities in United States, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Latin America, China, and the Philippines. Includes texts of advertisements, British analysis of press reports on and of Zionists, Jewish organizations in Shanghai, Zionist protest of martial law in Palestine, Jewish resettlement scheme in Dutch Guiana, proposal by Abba Hillel Silver to declare Jerusalem an open city, transfer of Jewish refugees from Czechoslovakia to France, Jewish opposition to Zionist terrorism, American Council for Judaism opposition to Zionism, and various Jewish protests of British policy in Palestine.
Covers situation reports on Zionist terrorism, including kidnapping and flogging of British soldiers and British search-and-seizure response, and situation reports on Palestine public opinion on events of January 1947. Includes memorandum on British policy for Prime Minister's use.
Covers illegal Jewish immigration to Palestine including visa approval procedures of Latin American countries; illegal Jewish immigration from France and Hungary; U.S. Congressman Andrew L. Somers pressure on Dominican Republic for issuance of visas for Jewish refugees; departure of illegal immigrant ship Abril (ship) [alias Ben Hecht] from United States; British attempts to have U.S. government stifle Zionist propaganda advocating illegal immigration; and legal issues of U.S. citizens assisting illegal immigration to Palestine.
Covers Mufti of Jerusalem activities in Egypt, possible visit to Syria and Lebanon, and British analysis of his political activities in Egypt. Includes British discussion of his recent extremist contacts, his relations with Arab League, and increase of radicalism and extremism with release of Mufti from detention in France.
Covers shipping involved in illegal Jewish immigration and British efforts to prevent this traffic. Includes movements of suspected illegal immigrant ships; Panama and Honduras cancellation of registries of certain suspect ships; legality of seizure of suspected ships; U.S. press and British intelligence on ownership and refitting of President Warfield (ship) in United States; Cuban visas for illegal Jewish immigrants; and legal issues on the prosecution of U.S. crews of illegal immigrant ships and its possible implications for future anti-British propaganda.
Covers return from Palestine of Congressman Joseph Clark Baldwin. Includes his support for establishment of Jewish state; press reports of his statement to Irgun Zvai Leumi to temporarily cease operations; his meeting with British ambassadors to France and United States; and text of his report on Palestine to President Truman and Political Action Committee for Palestine, Inc. His report includes impressions of Palestine problem, meeting with Menachem Begin, and recommendations for future.
Covers various viewpoints and discussion of partition and provincial autonomy plans. Includes John Bagot Glubb on boundaries of possible partition plan; British discussion of submission of mandate to UN, legal issues, and possible UN partition or provincial autonomy plans; formation of United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP); and account of UNSCOP visit to Palestine and request for materials useful for recommendation of partition.
Covers living conditions at detention camp in Asmara, Eritrea, for suspected Zionist terrorists as reported by International Committee of the Red Cross delegate, Jean Munier. Includes information on camp layout; facilities; activities of detainees; questions and concerns submitted by detainees; account of Sudanese guards firing on Jewish prisoners on 17 January 1946; and other related issues.
Covers informal meetings at London Conference on Palestine, 1946-1947, between British and Jewish Agency, Agudas Israel World Organisation, Board of Deputies of British Jews, and Anglo-Jewish Association. Includes detailed minutes of meetings and interviews; Jewish Agency rejection of Herbert Morrison's provincial autonomy plan and British trusteeship plan; election of members to Jewish Agency Executive; and other related issues.
Covers proceedings and evidence of United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP); summaries of majority and minority recommendations of UNSCOP; and text of UNSCOP report to UN General Assembly. Includes evidence by Palestine government countering evidence submitted by Vaad Leumi; publication of British report on political history of Palestine; UNSCOP request for text of 1946 Brook-Brady provincial autonomy plan; evidence submitted by Greek Orthodox Patriarchate; and UNSCOP activities in Geneva and visit to Germany and Austria.
Covers meeting between Moshe Shertok of Jewish Agency and Secretary of State for Air, P. J. Noel-Baker, on British mandate, Jewish immigration, and Zionist terrorism; and Jewish Agency views on British strategic interests in Palestine, strategic implications of Jewish state, and Jewish Agency support for partition and opposition to federal state scheme. Includes Palestine press coverage of President Warfield (ship) incident and Jewish Agency protest of British desire for UN resolution condemning illegal Jewish immigration to Palestine.
Covers alleged Arab states attempts to purchase arms for Palestinian Arabs; various reports on British policy regarding British supply of military weapons to Middle East; and French press report of trial in France regarding arms cache of Irgun Zvai Leumi.
Covers The Nation Associates booklet containing documents submitted to UN exposing Arab Higher Committee and Mufti of Jerusalem's pro-Axis and war crimes activities during World War II. Includes personal histories of prominent members of Arab Higher Committee and photographs of Mufti of Jerusalem meetings with prominent Nazis.
Includes situation reports on fighting in Jerusalem and elsewhere in Palestine. Covers cease-fire agreement at Hebrew University and Hadassah Hospital in Jerusalem; accounts by International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and British Consul-General on surrender and evacuation of Jews from Jewish Quarter of Jerusalem; security of U.S. Jerusalem Consulate-General and account of death of U.S. Consul-General; alleged Jewish infiltration into Haifa enclave to threaten Arab refugees; boundaries of British control of Haifa; account of shooting and disappearance of British airman by Arab irregular forces in Jerusalem; and Egyptian allegations of Jewish bacteriological warfare.
Covers Israeli air and sea importation of military weapons, explosives, and aircraft in violation of UN embargo. Includes reports of unloading of British, Russian, and Italian arms ships at Haifa; reports on progress of and SOS signal from Altalena (ship) under fire from Haganah shore batteries at Tel Aviv; report of Halifax bombers enroute to Palestine; RAF reconnaissance of Israeli airfields showing growth of Israeli air force; and British memorandum on Israeli buildup of military weapons and aircraft in violation of UN truce and arms embargo.
Covers Arab attempts to solve political and administrative problems in Palestine including appointment of Transjordan, Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon military governors for areas of Palestine under their military control; effect these appointments had on influence of Arab Higher Committee; Arab Legion administrative activities in Jerusalem; extent of Egyptian control of southern Palestine; and formation of Arab government at Gaza.
Covers international recognition of Israel. Includes U.S. Republican and Democratic party platforms for 1948 recognizing State of Israel; transformation of Jewish Agency for Palestine Political Department into Israeli Foreign Affairs Department; Israeli ministries of Foreign Affairs, Finance, and Communications reports; and British biography of Golda Myerson [Meir].
Covers details of assassination, protests by various countries, and Israeli update on trial of Stern Group leaders. Includes account of incident by UN Mediator (Acting) and his protest sent to Israeli government; Stern Group propaganda threatening Folke Bernadotte; reactions of Vatican, Egypt, Syria, Norway, and Soviet Union to assassination; and proceedings in UN Security Council on incident.
Covers proposal to move Haifa Consulate- General to Tel Aviv and C. H. A. Marriott's views on issue and implications of future British recognition of Israel. Includes lists of prewar treaties and agreements with former enemy nations and lists of bilateral and multilateral treaties and agreements applicable to past Palestine government and present Israeli government.
Includes monthly reviews on Jewish affairs compiled by member of Jerusalem Consulate- General from Hebrew press sources for September and October 1948. Includes summaries of political alliances and activities, relations between Israeli government and different groups of revisionists, meeting of General Zionist Council, Israeli government efforts to arrest Stern Group members after assassination of UN Mediator, economic conditions in Jerusalem, Israeli government budgetary discussion, new Israeli taxation measures, David Ben-Gurion's decision to dissolve the national staff of the Palmach, and other topics.