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Guida ai prodotti Proquest per BIBLIOSAN: Medline (A&I)

Argomenti Trattati

  • Anatomia
  • Biologia riproduttiva
  • Clinica
  • Diagnosi e cura
  • Disordini della comunicazione
  • Epidemiologia
  • Farmaceutica e farmacologia
  • Farmaci sperimentali
  • Fisiologia
  • Formazione continua
  • Infermieristica
  • Legislazione and regolamentazione
  • Medicine Alternative
  • Microbiologia
  • Neurologia
  • Nuove droghe
  • Nutrizione
  • Odontoiatria
  • Parassitologia
  • Patologia
  • Personalità
  • Problemi etici e legali
  • Professioni paramediche
  • Psichiatria
  • Psicobiologia
  • Psicologia Clinica
  • Psicologia Comportamentale
  • Psicologia dello Sviluppo
  • Psicologia Sociale
  • Psicometria
  • Salute pubblica, ambientale ed occupazionale
  • Trattamenti chirurgici e farmaceutici
  • Tecniche e procedure di laboratorio
  • Terapia genetica
  • Tossicologia
  • Trial clinici e protocolli sperimentali
  • Veterinaria (limitata)

Come usare il Thesaurus MESH

Vedi la figura al centro:

1 - Introdurre il termine nella scatola Termini di ricerca e cliccare sul bottone Trova.

2 - Esplorare la gerarchia di termini e selezionare il termine che interessa - Cliccare sul simbolo dei 'Qualificatori' per vedere la lista dei Subheadings che si applicano al Termine descrittore.

3 - Selezionare il SubHeading che interessa

4 - Cliccare sul bottone Aggiungi alla ricerca - la strategia di ricerca appropriata verrà spostata nella maschera di Ricerca Avanzata o nella scatola della Riga di Comando - aggiungere altri termini se necessario e lanciare la ricerca.

MESH - i Subheadings

I MeSH subheadings (o qualifiers) sono creati nell'ambito del Thesaurus e possono essere usati per definire il contesto specifico di un descrittore MESH principale. Per esempio, un articolo indicizzato con “aripiprazole -- adverse effects” informa il lettore che l'articolo tratta il farmaco Aripiprazole e, piu' precisamente, degli eventi avversi causati da esso. I descrittori principali MESH (preferred terms) ed i subheadings, o qualifiers, possono essere selezionati nel Thesaurus visuale, accessibile dal link in Ricerca Avanzata ed in Riga di Comando. Alcuni Subheadings sono utilizzati in relazione ai descrittori per i Farmaci, altri sono relativi alle Patologie, altri ancora agli Organi, ecc. - Nella lista al centro, accanto ad ogni Subheading si trova la sua descrizione, che spiega anche in relazione a quale tipo di descrittore principale ciascuno di essi e' applicabile.

Cos'è Medline

MEDLINE® è la principale banca dati bibliografica prodotta dalla U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). Il database contiene milioni di citazioni, derivate da alcune migliaia di riviste di biomedicina e scienze della vita, ed indicizzate con i Medical Subject Headings (MeSH®), descrittori dal vocabolario controllato della NLM. L'archivio parte dal 1946, l'ingestione annuale supera i 700,000 nuovi records.

Contiene riferimenti bibliografici da articoli di riviste scientifiche, con particolare riguardo alla salute e biomedicina. Un'area onnicomprensiva che copre le discipline delle scienze biologiche, chimiche, del comportamento e bioingegnerie, che supportano l'attività dei professionisti della salute, ma anche nella ricerca di base, nella terapia clinica, nella salute pubblica, nella gestione amministrativa ed attività educative in medicina. MEDLINE copre anche le discipline necessarie per gli operatori in biomedicina, ricercatori ed educatori, inclusi aspetti di biologia, scienze ambientali, biologia marina, botanica e animale, così come biofisica e chimica.

Vedere qui accanto la lista estesa degli argomenti trattati.

MESH - Medical Subject Headings, il Thesaurus NLM

Una caratteristica distintiva di MEDLINE è che i documenti sono indicizzati con i Medical Subject Headings (MeSH®) della NLM.  - I termini MeSH possono essere selezionati dal Thesaurus accessibile dal link nelle pagine di Ricerca Avanzata e Riga di Comando.

Come usare il MESH Thesaurus

MESH - i Subheadings

Qualifier name

Definition

Abnormalities

Used with organs for congenital defects producing changes in the morphology of the organ. It is used also for abnormalities in animals.

Administration and dosage

Used with drugs for dosage forms, routes of administration, frequency and duration of administration, quantity of medication, and the effects of these factors.

Adverse effects

Used with drugs, chemicals, or biological agents in accepted dosage - or with physical agents or manufactured products in normal usage - when intended for diagnostic, therapeutic, prophylactic, or anesthetic purposes. It is used also for adverse effects or complications of diagnostic, therapeutic, prophylactic, anesthetic, surgical, or other procedures, but excludes contraindications for which "contraindications" is used.

Agonists

Used with chemicals, drugs, and endogenous substances to indicate substances or agents that have affinity for a receptor and intrinsic activity at that receptor. (From Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p.16)

Analogs and derivatives

Used with drugs and chemicals for substances that share the same parent molecule or have similar electronic structure but differ by the addition or substitution of other atoms or molecules. It is used when the specific chemical heading is not available and no appropriate group heading exists.

Analysis

Used for the identification or quantitative determination of a substance or its constituents and metabolites; includes the analysis of air, water, or other environmental carrier. It excludes the chemical analysis of tissues, tumors, body fluids, organisms, and plants for which "chemistry" is used. The concept applies to both methodology and results. For analysis of substances in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine the specific subheading designating the fluid is used.

Anatomy and histology

Used with organs, regions, and tissues for normal descriptive anatomy and histology, and for the normal anatomy and structure of animals and plants.

Antagonists and inhibitors

  Used with chemicals, drugs, and endogenous substances to indicate substances or   agents which counteract their biological effects by any mechanism.

Biosynthesis

Used for the anabolic formation of chemical substances in organisms, in living cells, or by subcellular fractions.

Blood

Used for the presence or analysis of substances in the blood; also for examination of, or changes in, the blood in disease states. It excludes serodiagnosis, for which the subheading "diagnosis" is used, and serology, for which "immunology" is used.

Blood supply

Used for arterial, capillary, and venous systems of an organ or region whenever the specific heading for the vessel does not exist. It includes blood flow through the organ.

Cerebrospinal fluid

Used for the presence or analysis of substances in the cerebrospinal fluid; also for examination of or changes in cerebrospinal fluid in disease states.

Chemical synthesis

Used for the chemical preparation of molecules in vitro. For the formation of chemical substances in organisms, living cells, or subcellular fractions, "biosynthesis" is used.

Chemically induced

Used for biological phenomena, diseases, syndromes, congenital abnormalities, or symptoms caused by endogenous or exogenous substances.

Chemistry

Used with chemicals, biological, and non-biological substances for their composition, structure, characterization, and properties; also used for the chemical composition or content of organs, tissue, tumors, body fluids, organisms, and plants. Excludes chemical analysis and determination of substances for which "analysis" is used; excludes synthesis for which "chemical synthesis" is used; excludes isolation and purification of substances for which "isolation & purification" is used.

Classification

Used for taxonomic or other systematic or hierarchical classification systems.

Complications

Used with diseases to indicate conditions that co-exist or follow, i.e., co-existing diseases, complications, or sequelae.

Congenital

Used with disease headings to indicate those conditions existing at, and usually before, birth. It excludes morphologic abnormalities and birth injuries, for which "abnormalities" and "injuries" are used.

Contraindications

Used with drugs, chemicals, and biological and physical agents in any disease or physical state that might render their use improper, undesirable, or inadvisable. Used also with contraindicated diagnostic, therapeutic, prophylactic, anesthetic, surgical or other procedures.

Cytology

Used for cellular appearance of unicellular and multicellular organisms.

Deficiency

Used with endogenous and exogenous substances which are absent or in diminished amount relative to the normal requirement of an organism or a biologic system.

Diagnosis

Used with diseases for all aspects of diagnosis, including examination, differential diagnosis and prognosis; excludes mass screening for which "prevention & control" is used. Excludes radiographic diagnosis for which "radiography" is used; excludes scintigraphic diagnosis for which "radionuclide imaging" is used; excludes ultrasonic diagnosis for which "ultrasonography" is used.

Diet therapy

Used with disease headings for dietary and nutritional management of the disease. The concept does not include vitamin or mineral supplements, for which "drug therapy" may be used.

Drug effects

Used with organs, regions, tissues, or organisms and physiological and psychological processes for the effects of drugs and chemicals.

Drug therapy

Used with disease headings for the treatment of disease by the administration of drugs, chemicals, and antibiotics. For diet therapy and radiotherapy, use specific subheadings. Excludes immunotherapy for which "therapy" is used.

Economics

Used for the economic aspects of any subject, as well as for all aspects of financial management. It includes the raising or providing of funds.

Education

Used for education, training programs, and courses in various fields and disciplines, and for training groups of persons.

Embryology

Used with organs, regions, and animal headings for embryologic and fetal development. It is used also with diseases for embryologic factors contributing to postnatal disorders.

Enzymology

Used with organisms, except vertebrates, and with organs and tissues. It is also used with diseases for enzymes during the course of the disease, but excludes diagnostic enzyme tests, for which "diagnosis" is used.

Epidemiology

Used with human and veterinary diseases for the distribution of disease, factors which cause disease, and the attributes of disease in defined populations; includes incidence, frequency, prevalence, endemic and epidemic outbreaks; also surveys and estimates of morbidity in geographic areas and in specified populations. Used also with geographical headings for the location of epidemiologic aspects of a disease. Excludes mortality for which "mortality" is used.

Ethics

Used with techniques and activities for discussion and analysis with respect to human and social values.

Ethnology

Used with diseases for ethnic, cultural, or anthropological aspects, and with geographic headings to indicate the place of origin of a group of people.

Etiology

Used with diseases for causative agents including microorganisms and includes environmental and social factors and personal habits as contributing factors. It includes pathogenesis.

Genetics

Used for mechanisms of heredity and the genetics of organisms, for the genetic basis of normal and pathologic states, and for the genetic aspects of endogenous chemicals. It includes biochemical and molecular influence on genetic material.

Growth and development

Used with microorganisms, plants, and the postnatal period of animals for growth and development. It includes also the postnatal growth or development of organs or anatomical parts.

History

Used for the historical aspects of any subject. It includes brief historical notes but excludes case histories.

Immunology

Used for immunologic studies of tissues, organs, microorganisms, fungi, viruses, and animals. It includes immunologic aspects of diseases but not immunologic procedures used for diagnostic, preventive, or therapeutic purposes, for which "diagnosis", "prevention & control", or "therapy" are used. The concept is also used for chemicals as antigens or haptens.

Injuries

Used with anatomic headings, animals, and sports for wounds and injuries. Excludes cell damage, for which "pathology" is used.

Innervation

Used with organs, regions, or tissues for their nerve supply.

Instrumentation

Used with diagnostic or therapeutic procedures, analytic techniques, and specialties or disciplines, for the development or modification of apparatus, instruments, or equipment.

Isolation and purification

Used with bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, and helminths for the obtaining of pure strains or for the demonstration of the presence of or identification of organisms by DNA analyses, immunologic, or other methods, including culture techniques. It is used also with biological substances and chemicals for the isolation and purification of the constituents.

Legislation and jurisprudence

Used for laws, statutes, ordinances, or government regulations, as well as for legal controversy and court decisions.

Manpower

Used with disciplines and programs for the demand, supply, distribution, recruitment, and use of personnel.

Metabolism

Used with organs, cells and subcellular fractions, organisms, and diseases for biochemical changes and metabolism. It is used also with drugs and chemicals for catabolic changes (breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones). For anabolic processes (conversion of small molecules into large), BIOSYNTHESIS is used. For enzymology, pharmacokinetics, and secretion use the specific subheadings.

Methods

Used with techniques, procedures, and programs for methods.

Microbiology

Used with organs, animals, and higher plants and with diseases for microbiologic studies. For parasites, "parasitology" is used; for viruses, "virology" is used.

Mortality

Used with human and veterinary diseases for mortality statistics. For deaths resulting from various procedures statistically but for a death resulting in a specific case, use FATAL OUTCOME, not /mortality.

Nursing

Used with diseases for nursing care and techniques in their management. It includes the nursing role in diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive procedures.

Organization and administration

Used for administrative structure and management.

Parasitology

Used with animals, higher plants, organs, and diseases for parasitic factors. In diseases, it is not used if the parasitic involvement is implicit in the diagnosis.

Pathogenicity

Used with microorganisms, viruses, and parasites for studies of their ability to cause disease in man, animals, or plants.

Pathology

Used for organ, tissue, or cell structure in disease states.

Pharmacokinetics

Used for the mechanism, dynamics and kinetics of exogenous chemical and drug absorption, biotransformation, distribution, release, transport, uptake and elimination as a function of dosage, extent and rate of metabolic processes.

Pharmacology

Used with drugs and exogenously administered chemical substances for their effects on living tissues and organisms. It includes acceleration and inhibition of physiological and biochemical processes and other pharmacologic mechanisms of action.

Physiology

Used with organs, tissues, and cells of unicellular and multicellular organisms for normal function. It is used also with biochemical substances, endogenously produced, for their physiologic role.

Physiopathology

Used with organs and diseases for disordered function in disease states.

Poisoning

Used with drugs, chemicals, and industrial materials for human or animal poisoning, acute or chronic, whether the poisoning is accidental, occupational, suicidal, by medication error, or by environmental exposure.

Prevention and control

Used with disease headings for increasing human or animal resistance against disease (e.g., immunization), for control of transmission agents, for prevention and control of environmental hazards, or for prevention and control of social factors leading to disease. It includes preventive measures in individual cases.

Psychology

Used with non-psychiatric diseases, techniques, and named groups for psychologic, psychiatric, psychosomatic, psychosocial, behavioral, and emotional aspects, and with psychiatric disease for psychologic aspects; used also with animal terms for animal behavior and psychology.

Radiation effects

Used for effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on drugs and chemicals.

Radiography

Used with organs, regions, and diseases for x-ray examinations. It does not include radionuclide imaging for which "radionuclide imaging" is used.

Radionuclide imaging

Used for radionuclide imaging of any anatomical structure, or for the diagnosis of disease.

Radiotherapy

Used with disease headings for the therapeutic use of ionizing and nonionizing radiation. It includes the use of radioisotope therapy.

Rehabilitation

Used with diseases and surgical procedures for restoration of function of the individual.

Secondary

Used with neoplasms to indicate the secondary location to which the neoplastic process has metastasized.

Secretion

Used for the discharge across the cell membrane, into the extracellular space or ducts, of endogenous substances resulting from the activity of intact cells of glands, tissues, or organs.

Standards

Used with facilities, personnel, and program headings for the development, testing, and application of standards of adequacy or acceptable performance and with chemicals and drugs for standards of identification, quality, and potency. It includes health or safety standards in industries and occupations.

Statistics and numerical data

Used with non-disease headings for the expression of numerical values which describe particular sets or groups of data. It excludes manpower distribution for which "manpower" is used and excludes supply or demand for which "supply & distribution" is used.

Supply and distribution

Used for the quantitative availability and distribution of material, equipment, health services, personnel, and facilities. It excludes food supply and water supply in industries and occupations.

Surgery

Used for operative procedures on organs, regions, or tissues in the treatment of diseases, including tissue section by lasers. It excludes transplantation, for which "transplantation" is used.

Therapeutic use

Used with drugs, biological preparations, and physical agents for their use in the prophylaxis and treatment of disease. It includes veterinary use.

Therapy

Used with diseases for therapeutic interventions except drug therapy, diet therapy, radiotherapy, and surgery, for which specific subheadings exist. The concept is also used for articles and books dealing with multiple therapies.

Toxicity

Used with drugs and chemicals for experimental human and animal studies of their ill effects. It includes studies to determine the margin of safety or the reactions accompanying administration at various dose levels. It is used also for exposure to environmental agents. Poisoning should be considered for life-threatening exposure to environmental agents.

Transmission

Used with diseases for studies of the modes of transmission.

Transplantation

Used with organs, tissues, or cells for transplantation from one site to another within the same subject, or from one subject to another of the same species or different species.

Trends

Used for the manner in which a subject changes, qualitatively or quantitatively, with time, whether past, present, or future. It excludes discussions of the course of disease in particular patients.

Ultrasonography

Used with organs and regions for ultrasonic imaging and with diseases for ultrasonic diagnosis. Does not include ultrasonic therapy.

Ultrastructure

Used with tissues and cells (including neoplasms) and microorganisms for microanatomic structures, generally below the size visible by light microscopy.

Urine

Used for the presence or analysis of substances in the urine, and also for the examination of, or changes in, the urine in disease.

Utilization

Used with equipment, facilities, programs, services, and health personnel for discussions, usually with data, of how much they are used. It includes discussions of overuse and underuse.

Veterinary

Used for naturally occurring diseases in animals, or for diagnostic, preventive, or therapeutic procedures used in veterinary medicine.

Virology

Used with organs, animals, and higher plants and with diseases for virologic studies. For bacteria, rickettsia, and fungi, "microbiology" is used; for parasites, "parasitology" is used.

Tools per conoscere meglio Medline

Tipi di Records

La maggior parte dei documenti in MEDLINE sono completamente indicizzati, ma ci sono altri tipi di documenti che sono edizioni elettroniche a diverso livello di completezza, rese disponibili online prima che la informazione bibliografica sia completata.

I documenti in Medline sono classificati con uno dei seguenti tipi di Document Status, a seconda della fase in cui sono secondo il processo editoriale della NLM:
Publisher - articoli che appaiono sul web prima della pubblicazione del numero della Rivista (citazioni pre-stampa)
In data review – prima fase del processo di controllo qualità della NLM; da questo stadio i records passeranno o allo stadio ‘In process’ o a quello ‘PubMed-not-Medline’
In process – I dati bibliografici sono controllati ma non sono ancora aggiunti i descrittori MeSH
Medline – documenti completi con indicizzazione MeSH ed una data nel campo ‘Date Completed’; la stragrande maggioranza dei records in Medline sono in questa fase.
Pubmed-not-Medline – records che non rientrano nella tipologia trattata in Medline.

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Seleziona Document Status - Stato Documento in Ricerca Avanzata:

Annual reload

Ogni anno la National Library of Medicine (NLM) apporta modifiche al Thesaurus MeSH che riflettono cambiamenti nella terminologia medica. Nuovi termini sono aggiunti, alcuni sono cambiati, e vecchi termini caduti in disuso sono eliminati. Agli inizi di Dicembre ogni anno la NLM procede ad un ricaricamento completo della banca dati per incorporare queste modifiche al thesaurus MeSH. La NLM interrompe gli aggiornamenti a MEDLINE verso la fine di Novembre, e li riprende di nuovo dopo che ha provveduto a fornire il ricaricamento, verso metà Dicembre.