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Congressional Help: Citing

General Principles of Citation  

An ever-growing amount of federal government information is available in electronic format. This presents unique challenges to a scholar citing such works. The following principles should be followed to ensure that another researcher can locate exactly the same electronic text and distinguish the electronic text from the print equivalent.

  • Use document header information to provide information about the electronic document. Header information is found at the top of each electronic record.
  • Try to provide a unique identifier (either a record or entry number, a code, or a standard abbreviation) to help the reader identify the exact text being cited. Frequently, this information is in the header.
  • Provide a document date or "Load date" for each record to provide information about the specific version being cited. This record may be updated later, and the date provided within the citation will alert a reader to a possible change in the text.
  • Supply information (such as U.S. Congress or U.S. House) to clarify the source of the material; many databases do not provide this information in the header for each document. It can be found in the database description within the citation help provided in ProQuest® Congressional.
  • Indicate the database name and the vendor making the database available. Some databases are available from many different sources, and the text may be different in each. This information also allows the reader to contact the vendor for help in accessing the information.
  • Insert a standard pattern of punctuation to clarify the relationship between the elements of the citation. Underlining or italicizing titles, dates, and vendor names can help the reader understand the source of the citation information.
  • Since many full-text databases do not include page numbers, insert phrases such as "Quote from:" or "Appendix from:" to let your reader know that the information being quoted is from a larger document.

For more detailed information and guidelines for citing both print and electronically formatted government information resources, consult The Complete Guide to Citing Government Information Resources: A Manual for Social Science and Business Research, 3rd ed. by Debora Cheney, LexisNexis, Bethesda, MD. 2002. This manual was originally published in 1984 as The Complete Guide to Citing Government Documents: A Manual for Writers and Librarians by Diane Garner and Diane Smith.

Citing Bill Tracking Reports 

Database Information

This database provides bill tracking information such as the date introduced, last action, sponsors, a list of major actions, and a bill digest and summary.

For each citation, include:

  • Bill number and title the title usually appears in the entry header; when it does not, use the title as it appears in the synopsis. When the title is lengthy, abbreviate it, giving a portion sufficient to distinguish the bill from another with a similar subject. Use an ellipsis (...) to show that the title is abbreviated.
  • Congress number (107, 108, etc.); date introduced; and date of last action
  • Database name (Text from: Bill Tracking Report)
  • Web service name (Available from: ProQuest® Congressional)
  • Date accessed by the user (Accessed:)

For example:

  • "H.R. 2--Line Item Veto Act." (104th Congress; Introduced: 1/4/95; Last Action: 5/17/95). Text from: Bill Tracking Report. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 2/11/05.
  • "S. 234--Bill To Exempt a State from Certain Penalties for Failing to Meet Requirements Relating To Motorcycle Helmet Laws if the State Has in Effect a Motorcycle Safety Program " (104th Congress; Introduced: 1/10/95; Last Action: 6/7/95). Text from: Bill Tracking Report. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 3/5/02.

Citing Bills  

Database Information

This database contains acts, bills, and resolutions introduced in the House and Senate. As each act, bill, or resolution is introduced, it is assigned a unique number that allows researchers to track how the legislation changes during the legislative process. In order to cite legislation, it is important to understand how bills are numbered and where to find the bill title.

How bills are numbered

Acts, bills, and resolutions are assigned a unique number that acts as an identifying number for that legislation. This number stays with the legislation through the entire Congress. This number has three parts:

  • A sequential number assigned when the legislation is first introduced in the House or Senate. When a new Congress convenes, numbering of legislation begins with "1" and continues sequentially until the close of that Congress.
  • An abbreviation preceding the sequential number to indicate the Chamber of origin and type of legislation (that is, H.R. for House bills, H. Res. for House Resolutions, S. for Senate bills)
  • The number of the Congress (for example, 101st Congress)

All three parts the number of the Congress (101st), the legislative Chamber and type abbreviation (H.R., S., etc.), and the sequentially assigned number must be supplied in the citation to link it to the text of a specific piece of legislation. For example, the 106th Congress would have both an S. 1 and an H.R. 1 and the 107th Congress would also have both an S. 1 and an H.R. 1. No committee information is required; all legislation is issued by the entire congressional Chamber, not by a committee. The congressional session number (1st or 2nd) can also be omitted.

The bill title

The exact title of a bill may be difficult to determine. You may use the title given in the synopsis ("An Act To Restore the American Family, Enhance Support ") or the popular or "short" title given in the first section of the bill text ("This act may be cited as the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1995 "). When the title is lengthy, you may abbreviate it, giving a portion sufficient to distinguish the bill from another with a similar subject. Use an ellipsis (...) to show the title is abbreviated.

For each citation, include:

  • Either "U.S. Senate" or "U.S. House" and the Congress number, to distinguish bills with the same bill number introduced in each Chamber and in different Congresses
  • Bill number (must be preceded by an abbreviation H.R., H.Res., S., S.J.Res., etc.) and the title (see discussion above)
  • Version number and version date many bills go through many versions and each may be distinctly different in wording and content. The original version of a bill is always labeled "Version 1". Each version constitutes a separate document.
  • Database name (Text from: Full Text of Bills)
  • Web service name (Available from: ProQuest® Congressional)
  • Date accessed by the user (Accessed: date)

For example:

  • U.S. House. 104th Congress. "H.R. 3, A Bill To Control Crime." (Version: 1; Version Date: 2/9/93). Text from: Full Text of Bills. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 7/04/05).
  • U.S. Senate. 104th Congress. "S. 4, An Act To Give the President Line Item Veto." (Version: 6; Version Date: 3/29/96). Text from: Full Text of Bills. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 7/04/05.
Bills with excessively long titles

When the title is lengthy, abbreviate it, giving a portion sufficient to distinguish the bill from another with a similar subject. Use an ellipsis (...) to show the title is abbreviated.

For example:

U.S. House. 104th Congress. "H.R. 399: A Bill To Establish a Single, Consolidated Source of Federal Child Care Funding ." (Version: 2; Version Date: 3/12/95). Text from: Full Text of Bills. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 02/15/01.

Bills without titles

Some bills will have neither a synopsis nor a popular title. In this case, the bill number and Congress provide enough information to locate the bill text.

For example:

U.S. House. 104th Congress. "H. Res. 222."(Version: 2; Version Date: 9/20/95). Text from: Full Text of Bills. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 08/03/03.

Citing Campaign Financial Information  

Database Information

This database provides campaign contribution reports for each incumbent or challenger for each federal office (House, Senate, or President) as required by the Federal Election Commission (FEC). Reports are provided for the current election cycle and for election cycles going back to 1989-90. When researching candidates for multiple federal offices, you will find a report on each election. Current and former reports are updated periodically. For this reason, your research must always indicate the date of the report cited.

Three types of reports are available in this database for each candidate:

  • Political Action Committee (PAC) receipts (provide the total receipts for each PAC)
  • Individual Contribution Receipt Reports (provide individual contributions made directly to a candidate)
  • Individual Contribution Receipt Reports made to a specific PAC (provide individual contributions to a specific PAC; these always include the FEC Committee ID and the name of the PAC)

For each citation, include:

  • Member name, election year cycle, and type of report when a candidate is not serving in Congress
  • Forum (office candidate is running for), FEC Cand. ID these numbers begin with "H", "S", or "P" to designate the House, Senate, or Presidential forums
  • Date (be sure to indicate if this is the "Final update")
  • Database name (Text from: Candidate Receipts Reports)
  • Web service name (Available from: ProQuest® Congressional)
  • Date accessed by the user (Accessed: date)

PAC receipts report

Example:

"McEwen, Bob--1991-1992 Cycle PAC Receipts." (Forum: House; FEC Cand. ID: H00H06049; Date: 5/1/94, Final update). Text from: Candidate Receipt Reports. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 1/23/93.

Individual contribution receipts report

Example:

"Boxer, Barbara--1995-1996 Cycle Individual Contributions Receipt." (Forum: Senate; FEC Cand. ID: S2CA000286; Date: 5/17/95). Text from: Candidate Receipt Reports. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 1/23/96.

Individual contributions receipt report to a specific PAC

Also include the PAC FEC Comm. ID and PAC name in the citation (for example, the Jack Kemp Compliance Fund is the name of the PAC below):

"Kemp, Jack--1993-1994 Cycle Individual Contributions." (Forum: President; FEC Cand. ID: P80000060; FEC Comm. ID: C00238972-Jack Kemp Compliance Fund; Date: 5/2/95, Final update). Text from: Candidate Receipt Reports. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 5/22/95.

Older reports that are missing information or split into two records

Some pre-1992-93 election cycle reports do not display the FEC Cand. ID number. This information can be omitted from the record. In addition, some longer records have been split into two parts. Be sure to indicate this in the citation:

"Bush, George--1991-1992 Cycle Individual Contributions (2 Parts)." (Forum: President; Date: 2/2/93). Text from: Candidate Receipt Reports. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 7/04/93.

Citing Candidate Financial Reports  

Database Information

This database provides financial reports issued by the Federal Election Commission (FEC) for each incumbent and challenger candidate for federal office (President, House, or Senate). It includes information on total receipts, individual contributions, candidate contributions, and other financial information about each candidate's campaign and a list of political action committees (PACs).

This database has multiple reports on candidates who have run for office in more than one election cycle. Likewise, the database has multiple reports generated for candidates who have run for more than one office during the period. The FEC Cand. ID number serves as a unique identifier for each political race ("P" for President, "S" for Senate, or "H" for House). Records are updated regularly; be sure to include the date to alert your reader to the possibility of later changes to the record.

For each citation, include:

  • Candidate name and election cycle years
  • Political office (Forum), FEC Cand. ID, and date be sure to designate if this is the "Final update"
  • Database name (Text from: Candidate Summary Reports)
  • Web service name (Available from: ProQuest® Congressional)
  • Date accessed by the user (Accessed: date)

For example:

  • "Gingrich, Newt Leroy: 1995-1996." (Forum: House; FEC Cand. ID: H6GA06033; Date: 5/14/96). Text from: Candidate Summary Reports. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 8/04/97.
  • "Bentsen, Lloyd M., Jr.: 1991-1992." (Forum: Senator; FEC Cand. ID: S6TX 00016; Date: 5/28/93, Final update). Text from: Candidate Summary Reports. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 8/04/97.
  • "Bentsen, Lloyd M., Jr.: 1991-1992." (Forum: Presidential; FEC Cand. ID: P60000171; Date: 5/28/93, Final update). Text from: Candidate Summary Reports. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 8/04/97.

Citing the Code of Federal Regulations  

Database Information

This database contains the full text of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and is a grouping by subject of all current federal regulations. The CFR is published in 50 titles (numbered 1-50); each title contains many sections. Section symbols can be omitted from the citation.

The CFR is updated using information and text from the Federal Register (FR). A CFR title and section constitute a unique identifier and must be included in every citation. Since the CFR is constantly being updated by the Federal Register, it is crucial to alert your reader to the date of your CFR citation vis-à-vis the Federal Register. This information can be found in the header of the document in a statement of FR currency (for example, "This section is current though the 5/22/96 issue of the Federal Register".)

For each citation, include:

  • CFR title number, section number, and section heading (title, chapter, subchapter, part, and subpart headers should be omitted)
  • "Current through" date (for example, 5/22/96)
  • Database name (Text from: Code of Federal Regulations)
  • Web service name (Available from: ProQuest® Congressional)
  • Date accessed by the user (Accessed: date)

For example:

"40 CFR 745.113: Certification and Acknowledgment of Disclosure." (Current through 5/22/96). Text from: Code of Federal Regulations. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed 2/10/97.

Without a section heading

The CFR title and section when accompanied by the "current through" date provide enough information to locate the exact section cited. Thus, the section heading can be omitted if it is not available or descriptive. For example:

"24 CFR 35.92" (Current through 7/5/96). Text from: Code of Federal Regulations. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 2/10/97.

Citing Committee Information  

Database Information

This database provides information for all House, Senate, and joint committees and subcommittees of the current Congress. Each record provides committee jurisdiction, membership, and key staff.

For each citation, include:

  • "U.S.", congressional Chamber (House or Senate) (omit for joint committees) followed by the complete name of the committee and subcommittee (if applicable)
  • Database name (Text from: Committee Membership Profile Report)
  • Web service name (Available from: ProQuest® Congressional)
  • Date accessed by the user (Accessed: date)

For example:

  • U.S. Senate. Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Committee." Text from: Committee Membership Profile Report. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 7/23/05.
  • U.S. House. Financial Services Committee, Subcommittee on Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit." Text from: Committee Membership Profile Report. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 7/23/05.
  • "U.S. Joint Economic Committee." Text from: Committee Membership Profile Report. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 7/23/05.

Citing Committee Prints  

Citing Committee Prints (Online)

Database Information

Committee prints are a generic document type that can cover anything the committee wishes to have published in support of its legislative and oversight functions. Committee prints are issued by House, Senate, and joint committees.

For each citation, include:

  • "U.S.", congressional Chamber (House or Senate) and the issuing committee. Use only the name of the main committee, not the name of any subcommittee.
  • The title of the publication, shortened with an ellipsis (...) if the title is too long
  • Print number, including CIS number, found in the bibliographic data for the publication
  • Database name (Text from: Committee Prints)
  • Date accessed by the user (Accessed: date)

For example:

U.S. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Strategies for Homeland Defense. (CMP-2001-FOR-0002; Date: Sept. 26, 2001). Text from: ProQuest® Congressional Research Digital Collection; Accessed: 7/23/04.

Joint committee print

For a joint committee, use "U.S. Congress" and the joint committee's full name. For example:

U.S. Congress. Joint Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. Report on the Parliamentary Election in Turkmenistan. (CMP-1995-CSC-0003; Date: Feb. 1995). Text from: ProQuest® Congressional Research Digital Collection; Accessed: 7/23/04.

Appendix

It is not uncommon for a copy of the act or other additional materials to be appended to a committee print. If it is necessary to cite directly to an appendix, use the phrase "Included in" to alert your reader that the item being cited is part of a larger document. For example:

"Countering the Changing Threat of International Terrorism." Included in: U.S. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Strategies for Homeland Defense. (CMP-2001-FOR-0002; Date: Sept. 26, 2001). Text from: ProQuest® Congressional Research Digital Collection; Accessed: 7/23/04."

Citing Committee Prints (Printed or Microfiche)

Database Information

Congressional committee prints are a generic document type that can cover anything the committee wishes to have published in support of its legislative and oversight functions. Committee prints are available in many libraries in either paper or microfiche and can be identified by using ProQuest® Congressional.

For each citation, include:

  • "U.S.", congressional Chamber (House or Senate), or “U.S. Congress” for joint, and the issuing committee. Use only the name of the main committee as the issuing agency, not the name of any subcommittee.
  • The title when a title includes the bill number or phrases such as "to accompany" or "with separate views", this information should be included with the title. The title of the publication may be shortened using an ellipsis (...) if the title is too long. If there is a date as part of the title, include it.
  • Print number (preceded by S.Prt.) combined with the number of the Congress (for example, 102, 103, 104).
  • Extremely lengthy prints may be published in multiple volumes or parts. Include all part or volume numbers in the citation.
  • The place of publication, publisher, and date of the original publication
  • The library classification number assigned to the publication
  • If citing a CIS microfiche version of the print, include the CIS year and fiche number in a note. If citing a government microfiche, include the word (Microfiche) after the title.
Printed committee print

Example:

U.S. Senate. Committee on Governmental Affairs. Nuclear Proliferation Factbook.(S. Prt. 103-111). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1994. (Y4.G74/9:S.PRT.103-111).

CIS microfiche committee print

Example:

U.S. House. Committee on Public Works and Transportation. Transportation and Environmental Infrastructure Needs (Vol. 2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1995. (1995 CIS microfiche H642-1).

GPO microfiche committee print

Example:

U.S. House. Committee on Energy and Commerce. Wishful Thinking: A World View of Insurance Solvency Regulation. (Microfiche). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1994. (Y4.EN2/3:103-R).

Citing Committee Reports  

Citing Committee Reports (Online)

Database Information

Committee reports are issued by House and Senate committees following the consideration of a specific piece of legislation. The report details the progress of the bill in the committee, including how the bill was amended, what amendments were adopted or rejected, the estimated cost of programs proposed in the legislation, opinions of the minority and majority members of the committee, and the "legislative intent" of the piece of legislation.

For each citation, include:

  • "U.S.", congressional Chamber (House or Senate), and the issuing committee
  • The title when a title includes the bill number or phrases such as "conference report", "to accompany", and "with separate views", this information should be included with the title
  • Report number, including Congress number the report number (preceded by H. Rpt. or S. Rpt.), combined with the number of the Congress (for example, 102, 103, 104), creates a unique identifier for the report and should be included in every citation
  • Database name (Text from: Committee Reports)
  • Web service name (Available from: ProQuest® Congressional)
  • Date accessed by the user (Accessed: date)

Note: For additional help citing online reports, see Citing U.S. Serial Set (Online)

Committee names

Since reports are issued by the committee, the committee name must be included in each citation, preceded by U.S. House or U.S. Senate. You need not include "Congress" in the hierarchical order since there is only one U.S. House or Senate. Use only the name of the main committee as the issuing agency, not the name of any subcommittee. For example:

  • U.S. House. Committee on Appropriations. Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations Bill, 1996, (to Accompany H.R. 2127) Together with Dissenting and Separate Views. (104 H. Rpt. 209). Text from: Committee Reports. Available from: ProQuest Congressional; Accessed: 4/20/04.
  • U.S. Senate. Committee on Environment and Public Works. Report to the Senate on the Activities of the Committee on Environment and Public Works for the 101st Congress. (102 S. Rpt. 55). Text from: Committee Reports. Available from: ProQuest Congressional; Accessed: 4/20/04.
Joint or conference committee report

For a joint committee, use U.S. Congress and the joint committee's full name. For a conference committee, use only U.S. House or U.S. Senate and no committee name. For example:

  • U.S. Congress. Joint Economic Committee. The 1995 Joint Economic Report (104 S. Rpt. 200). Text from: Committee Reports.bAvailable from: ProQuest Congressional; Accessed: 4/20/04.
  • U.S. House. National Defense Authorization Act of 1993, Conference Report (to Accompany H.R. 5006). (102 H. Rpt. 966). Text from: Committee Reports. Available from: ProQuest Congressional; Accessed: 4/20/04.
Committee report in multiple sections or volumes

Committee reports may be issued in multiple parts or volumes. In addition, due to the size of a report, the online version of a report may be split into multiple sections. Be sure to provide complete information about multiple parts or volumes as well as the complete number of online section equivalents. For example:

  • U.S. House. Committee on the Budget. Providing for Reconciliation Pursuant to Section 105 of the Concurrent Resolution on the Budget for Fiscal Year 1996. (104 H. Rpt. 280; Vol. 1, Sections 1-15). Text from: Committee Reports. Available from: ProQuest Congressional; Accessed: 4/20/04.
  • U.S. House. Committee on the Budget. Providing for Reconciliation Pursuant to Section 105 of the Concurrent Resolution on the Budget for Fiscal Year 1996. (104 H. Rpt. 280; Vol. 1, Section 13 of 15). Text from: Committee Reports. Available from: ProQuest Congressional; Accessed: 4/20/04.
Appendix

It is not uncommon for a copy of the act or other additional materials to be appended to a committee report. On occasion, it may be necessary to cite directly to an appendix. Use the phrase "Included in" to alert your reader that the item being cited is part of a larger document. For example:

"Appendix A: Representative George Miller's Hearing Questions for British Petroleum." Included in: U.S. House. Exports of Alaskan North Slope Oil. (104 H. Rpt. 139, Part 1). Text from: Committee Reports. Available from: ProQuest Congressional; Accessed: 4/30/03.

Citing Committee Reports (Printed or Microfiche)

Database Information

Congressional committee reports are issued by standing, joint, and conference committees following the consideration of a specific piece of legislation. The report details the progress of the bill in the committee, including how the bill was amended, what amendments were adopted or rejected, the estimated cost of programs proposed in the legislation, opinions of the minority and majority members of the committee, and the "legislative intent" of the piece of legislation. Committee reports are available in libraries in either paper or microfiche.

For each citation, include:

  • "U.S.", congressional Chamber (House or Senate), and the issuing committee. Use only the main committee, not the name of any subcommittee.
  • The title of the publication, shortened with an ellipsis (...) if the title is too long. If there is a date as part of the title, include it. When a title includes the bill number or phrases such as "conference report", "to accompany", and "with separate views", this information should be included with the title.
  • Report number, including Congress number and date of the report the report number (preceded by H. Rpt. or S. Rpt.), combined with the number of the Congress (for example, 102, 103, 104), creates a unique identifier for the report and should be included in every citation
  • Place of publication, publisher, and date of the publication
  • The library classification number assigned to the publication
  • If citing a CIS microfiche of the report, include the CIS year and fiche number in a note. If citing a government microfiche, include the word "Microfiche" in a note after the title.
Printed committee report

Example:

U.S. House. Committee on the Judiciary. Shipping Act of 1983. (H. Rpt. 98-53, pt. 2). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1983. (Y1.1/8:98-53/pt.2).

CIS microfiche committee report

Example:

U.S. House. Committee on the Judiciary. Alternative Punishments for Young Offenders, Report Together with Dissenting Views (To Accompany H.R. 3351 )... (H. Rpt. 103-321). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1993. (1993 CIS microfiche H523-21).

GPO microfiche committee report

Example:

U.S. Senate. Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation. Fisheries Act of 1993. (S. Rpt. 104-91). (Microfiche). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1995. (Y1.1/5:104-91).

Citing Congressional Documents  

Citing Congressional Documents (Online)

Database Information

Committee documents function as a major historical record of each Congress by providing texts of Presidential messages to Congress, veto messages, agency annual or special reports to Congress, reports on committee activities, and the texts of committee-sponsored special studies and background information compilations. Documents are issued by either the House or the Senate as a "committee of the whole".

For each citation, include:

  • "U.S.", congressional Chamber (House or Senate)
  • The title, shortened with an ellipsis (...) if the title is too long
  • If there is a date as part of the title, include it
  • Document number (preceded by H. Doc. or S. Doc.)
  • Date of the document, if provided
  • Documents may be issued in multiple parts or volumes; include all part or volume numbers in the citation
  • Database name (Text from: Congressional Documents)
  • Web service name (Available from: ProQuest® Congressional)
  • Date accessed by the user (Accessed: date)

For example:

U.S. Senate. Task Force on Economic Sanctions. (S. Doc. 105-26). Sept. 8, 1998. Text from: Congressional Documents. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 4/20/04.

Note: For additional help citing online reports, see Citing U.S. Serial Set (Online)

 

Citing Congressional Documents (Printed or Microfiche)

Database Information

Committee documents function as a major historical record of each Congress by providing texts of Presidential messages to Congress, veto messages, agency annual or special reports to Congress, reports on committee activities, and the texts of committee-sponsored special studies and background information compilations. Documents are issued by either the House or Senate as a "committee of the whole". Documents are available in libraries in either paper format or in microfiche.

For each citation, include:

  • "U.S." and the Chamber (House or Senate) issuing the document
  • The title of the publication; shortened with an ellipsis (...) if the title is too long
  • If there is a date as part of the title, include it
  • Extremely lengthy documents may be published in multiple volumes or parts. Include all part or volume numbers in the citation.
  • House or Senate document numbers, if given
  • If citing GPO microfiche, include a statement of format
  • The place of publication, publisher, and date of the original publication
  • The library classification number assigned to the publication
  • If citing a CIS microfiche version of the document, include the CIS year and fiche number in a note. If citing a government microfiche, include the word "Microfiche" after the title.
Printed committee document

Example:

U.S. Senate. Committee on Appropriations, U.S. Senate, 126th Anniversary, 1867-1993. (S. Doc. 103-17). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1995. (Y1.1/3:103-17).

CIS microfiche committee document

Example:

U.S. House. Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway Bridge Replacement at Great Bridge, Chesapeake, Virginia: Communication from the Acting Assistant Secretary of the Army (H. Doc. 103-308). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1994. (1995 CIS microfiche H640-1).

GPO microfiche committee document

Example:

U.S. House. Disabled American Veterans, 73d National Convention, Communication from the National Adjutant, Disabled American Veterans. (H. Doc. 103-339). (Microfiche). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1994. (Y1.1/7:103-339).

Citing the Congressional Record  

Citing Congressional Record (Daily Edition)

 

This information is related to the daily edition of the Congressional Record, which is accessed from the Advanced Search form. For information on citing the permanent edition of the Congressional Record, available to those users who have access to the Congressional Record Permanent Digital Collection, please see below.

Database Information

The Daily Congressional Record is issued daily when Congress is in session. Each issue (sometimes printed in more than one part) consists of the sections bulleted below. The page numbers within each section begin with "1" on the first day of the Congress and continue numbering consecutively until the end of that Congress.

  • Senate Remarks (pages begin with S) contain the legislative debates, communications from the executive branch, memorials, petitions, and information on legislation introduced or passed, including amendments and cosponsors in the Senate
  • House Remarks (pages begin with H) contain the legislative debates, communications from the executive branch, memorials, petitions, and information on legislation introduced or passed, including amendments and cosponsors in the House of Representatives
  • Extensions of Remarks (pages begin with E) contain the additional legislative statements not delivered on the floor of the House of Representatives or the Senate, such as speeches delivered outside Congress, letters from and tributes to constituents, and newspaper or magazine articles
  • Daily Digest (pages begin with D) contain the daily summaries of actions taken by the House and Senate, committees and subcommittees during the legislative day, as well as a listing of activities scheduled for the next day

A citation to the Daily Congressional Record could be to an entire section, to a quote by a specific speaker, to a bill text, or to a specific roll call vote.

For each citation, include:

  • Speaker, if provided - the title "Representative" (use for speakers in pages beginning with H) or "Senator" (use for speakers with pages beginning with S) should be added to speaker's name only if the speaker's first name is not provided. In addition, identify the home state of the speaker, if it is provided. This can serve to distinguish speakers with the same last name (for example, Representative Smith (RI) and Representative Smith (MA)). The state can be abbreviated or provided in its entirety.
  • Title - provided for each entry
  • Congressional Record volume, issue, date, and page - all located in the header information for each record. Note that the page numbers can begin with H for House, S for Senate, or E for Extensions of Remarks.
  • Web service name (Available from: ProQuest® Congressional)
  • Date accessed by the user (Accessed: date)

For example:

  • Representative McCollum (MN). "Megan's Law." Congressional Record 142: 89 (May 7, 1996) p. H4451. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 5/18/05.
  • Senator Hatch (UT). "Differences in Judicial Philosophy." Congressional Record 142:93 (June 6, 1996) p. S5903. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 8/23/04.
  • Forbes, Michael P. (NY) "The Long Island Advance's 125th Anniversary Purchased for $500 in 1871." Congressional Record 142:25 (February 28, 1996), p. E235. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 8/23/04.
Quote by a specific speaker

This database provides exact paging in the header at the beginning of each entry and also at the top of each screen. This allows the citation to a specific quote to include the exact page number containing that quote. For example:

Senator Dole (KS). "Health Care Reform." Congressional Record 142:94 (May 10, 1996) p. S5986. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 8/23/04.

Bill text

The text of a bill can frequently be located in the Congressional Record. Try to locate the bill number and include it in the citation. In addition, always use the exact page number where the bill text begins. For example:

"Healthy Meals for Children Act (H.R. 2066)." Congressional Record 142: 90 (May 14, 1996) p. H4911. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 8/23/04.

Vote

All roll call votes are numbered. The number must be included in the citation to identify the specific vote being cited. For example:

"Unfunded Mandate Reform Act of 1995: Roll Vote No. 25." Congressional Record 141:22 (January 23, 1995) p. H498. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 8/23/04.


 

Citing the Congressional Record (Permanent Edition)

 

This information is related to the permanent edition of the Congressional Record, which is accessed from the Basic, Advanced, and Search by Number forms. For information on citing the daily edition of the Congressional Record, please see above.

Database Information

A citation to the Congressional Record (Permanent Edition) can be to an entire section or to various types of content within a section (such as a quote by a specific speaker, a bill text, or a specific roll call vote), but all citations should include:

  • Title - Use the section header from the PDF replica of the original (e.g., Statements on Introduced Bills and Joint Resolutions)
  • Congressional Record volume number (e.g., 141)
  • Publication name (Congressional Record)
  • Page (e.g., 11288)
  • Year (e.g., 1995
  • Database name (Text from: Congressional Record Permanent Digital Collection)
  • Date accessed by the user (e.g., Accessed: date)
Quote by a specific speaker

To cite content quoted by a specific speaker, cite the name of the speaker first.

Note: The title "Representative" or "Senator" should not be added, but the home state of the speaker should be included.

For example:

Edward M. Kennedy (MA). "Additional Sponsors - S. 584." Congressional Record 141 (1995) p. 11291. (Text from: Congressional Record Permanent Digital Collection); Accessed: September 30, 2008.

Bill text

The text of a bill can frequently be located in the Congressional Record. If possible, locate the bill number and include it in the citation. In addition, always use the exact page number where the bill text begins. For example:

"Common Sense Legal Standards Reform Act (H.R. 946): Roll Vote No. 136." Congressional Record 141 (1995) p. 11287. (Text from: Congressional Record Permanent Digital Collection); Accessed: September 30, 2008.

Citing CRS Reports  

Database Information

CRS reports provide excellent background information on areas of public policy. The reports are generated by researchers working within the Library of Congress and are created at the request of Members of Congress or their committees.

For each citation, include:

  • The issuing agency: U.S. Congressional Research Service
  • The title
  • Report number and date
  • Name of the personal author, if provided
  • Database name (Text from: Congressional Research Digital Collection)
  • Web service name (Available from: ProQuest® Congressional)
  • Date accessed by the user (Accessed: date)

Note: Report number must include date of issuance because CRS reports are frequently issued in multiple iterations

For example:

"U.S. Congressional Research Service. Afghanistan: Current Issues and U.S. Policy (RL30588; Oct. 7, 2003), by Kenneth Katzman. Text in: ProQuest® Congressional Research Digital Collection; Accessed: December 10, 2005.

Citing the Federal Register  

Database Information

The Federal Register (FR) includes all final and proposed regulations, notices of investigations and meetings, and regulatory investigation notices from federal administrative agencies. Final regulations are added to the next issuance of the Code of Federal Regulations.

A citation to the Federal Register (FR) should allow the reader to find the exact section cited without having to search the entire text of a daily issue. The volume and page number of the FR issue serve as unique identifiers to both the print version and the online version of an FR entry. Page numbering begins with page "1" on the first business day of each year. Each volume number corresponds to a single year.

For each citation, include:

  • Title of the section, including part (if applicable), and type of action (final rule, proposed rule to amend, notice, etc.). This information can be found in the header for each database entry.
  • Federal Register volume, issue, date, and page (located in the header). If an entry has been divided into several parts by the online source, be sure to include this information in the citation.
  • Web service name (Available from: ProQuest® Congressional)
  • Date accessed by the user (Accessed: date)

For example:

"National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework (Proposed Rules and Notice of Public Hearing)." Federal Register 59:146 (August 1, 1994) p. 38949. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 9/15/04.

Entry divided into multiple parts, due to length

Occasionally, it is necessary for the online text of an entry to be divided into several parts because of its length. The total number of parts should be included following the date in each entry. However, do not confuse the database "part" (Part I of II and Part II of II, for example) with the regulation "part" (Part XIV, as seen in the example below). Since many regulations are exceedingly complex, it is frequently necessary to publish and update each part individually.

For example:

"Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System and Storm Water Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Activities, Part XIV (Notice)." Federal Register 60:189 (Sept. 29, 1995) p. 50804; Parts I-II). Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 9/15/04.

return

Citing Hearings  

Citing Hearings (Online)

Database Information

Congressional hearings contain the full transcripts of the proceedings, usually arranged chronologically in the order of appearance of witnesses. Hearings include the record of oral and written statements, committee questions, and discussion. Frequently, hearings also contain texts of related reports, statistical analyses, correspondence, exhibits, and articles presented to the committee by witnesses or inserted into the record by committee members and staff. Hearings are available in many libraries in either paper format or in microfiche and can be identified by using ProQuest® Congressional.

For each citation, include:

  • "U.S.", the Chamber (House or Senate), and the committee or subcommittee name holding the hearing. If the committee is a "joint committee," there will be no Chamber entry.
  • The title of the publication; shortened with an ellipsis (...) if the title is too long
  • If there is a date as part of the title, include it
  • Extremely lengthy hearings may be published in multiple volumes or parts, include all part or volume numbers in the citation
  • Database name (Text from: Congressional Hearings)
  • Date accessed by the user (Accessed: date)

For example:

U.S. House. Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. Hazardous Waste Disposal, Part 1. (HRG-1979-FCH-0059; Date: Mar.-May 1979). Text in: ProQuest® Congressional Hearings Digital Collection; Accessed: March 10, 2007.

Appendix

It is not uncommon for additional materials to be appended to a congressional hearing. If it is necessary to cite directly to an appendix, use the phrase "Included in" to alert your reader that the item being cited is part of a larger document. For example:

"History and Status of Hazardous Waste Management in New Jersey." Included in: U.S. House. Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. Testimony Hazardous Waste Disposal, Part 1. (HRG-1979-FCH-0059; Date: Mar.-May 1979). Text in: ProQuest® Congressional Hearings Digital Collection; Accessed: March 10, 2007.

Citing Hearings (Printed or Microfiche)

Database Information

Congressional hearings contain the full transcripts of the proceedings, usually arranged chronologically in the order of appearance of witnesses. Hearings include the record of oral and written statements, committee questions, and discussion. Frequently hearings also contain texts of related reports, statistical analyses, correspondence, exhibits, and articles presented to the committee by witnesses or inserted into the record by committee members and staff. Hearings are available in many libraries in either paper format or in microfiche and can be identified by using ProQuest® Congressional.

For each citation, include:

  • "U.S.", the Chamber (House or Senate), and the committee or subcommittee name holding the hearing. If the committee is a "joint committee," there will be no Chamber entry.
  • The title of the publication; shortened with an ellipsis (...) if the title is too long
  • If there is a date as part of the title, include it
  • Extremely lengthy hearings may be published in multiple volumes or parts, include all part or volume numbers in the citation
  • The place of publication, publisher, and date of the original publication
  • The library classification number assigned to the publication
  • If citing a CIS microfiche version of the hearing, include the CIS year and fiche number in a note. If citing a government microfiche, include the phrase "Microfiche" as a note after the title.
Printed committee hearing

Example:

U.S. House. Committee on International Relations. Evaluating U.S. Foreign Policy, Hearing. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1995. (Y4.IN8/16:F76/11).

CIS microfiche hearing

Example:

U.S. House. Committee on the Judiciary. Baseball's Antitrust Exemption, Part 2, Hearing, Sept. 22, 1994 Washington: Government Printing Office, 1995. (1995 CIS microfiche H521-20).

GPO microfiche hearing

Example:

U.S. Senate. Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Domestic Petroleum Production and International Supply, Hearing. (Microfiche). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1995. (Y4.EN2:S.HRG.104-50).

Citing Member Financial Information  

Database Information

ProQuest® Congressional information includes congressional member financial forms filed by Members of Congress each year. Each form covers a single calendar year. Forms from 1991 to date are included.

For each citation, include:

  • Member name, calendar year, forum (House or Senate), and state (may be abbreviated using standard abbreviations)
  • Database name (Text from: U.S. Congress Financial Disclosure Statement)
  • Web service name (Available from: ProQuest® Congressional)
  • Date accessed by the user (Accessed: date)

For example:

  • "James Louis Oberstar--Calendar Year 1993" (House; MN). Text from: U.S. Congress Financial Disclosure Statement. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 9/14/99.
  • "Robert J. Dole--Calendar Year 1994" (Senate; KS). Text from: U.S. Congress Financial Disclosure Statement. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 9/14/99.

Citing Member Information  

Database Information

This database provides a biographical summary for each Member of the current Congress, including committee and subcommittee assignments, and names and location of the Member's staff in Washington and in his or her home district.

For each citation, include:

  • Member name and the state he or she represents. Always provide the state the individual represents to distinguish between Members with common surnames; the state can be abbreviated or spelled out in full.
  • Database name (Text from: Member Profile Report)
  • Web service name (Available from: ProQuest® Congressional)
  • Date accessed by the user (Accessed: date)

For example:

  • "Senator John H. Glenn (Ohio)." Text from: Member Profile Report. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 12/12/04.
  • "Representative Barbara-Rose Collins (MI)." Text from: Member Profile Report. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 12/12/04.

Citing Newspapers  

Database Information

For each citation, include:

  • Author (Byline)
  • Title of the article (Headline)
  • Publication data title of the newspaper, date, section, and page number
  • Web service name (Available from: ProQuest® Congressional)
  • Date accessed by the user (Accessed: date)

For example:

Millbank, Dana. "Final Day of Nomination Hearings: Yawn." Washington Post 26 September 2005, A06. ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 9/16/05.

Citing Member Voting Records  

Database Information

This database provides information on how each Member of Congress has voted on a particular bill.

For each citation, include:

  • Member name, state (may be abbreviated), bill number and Congress number
  • Database name: (Text from: Legislative Profile Report)
  • Web service name (Available from: ProQuest® Congressional)
  • Date accessed by the user (Accessed: date)

For example:

  • "Senator Lloyd Bentsen (TX); S. 123, 102nd Congress. Text from: Legislative Profile Report. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 3/15/04.
  • "Representative Lynn M. Martin (IL)"; H.R. 54, 100th Congress. Text from: Legislative Profile Report. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 3/15/04.

Citing Public Laws  

Database Information

This database contains the full text of public laws (P.L.). These laws are also published in the print publication Statutes at Large (Stat.) and most will be codified by topic in the United States Code Service. The volume and page numbers in the Statutes at Large together serve as a unique identifier for a P.L. in both this database and in print; they must be included in every citation and can be found in the header of each document.

For each citation, include:

  • Public law number (P.L.) and title, if provided
  • Statutes at Large (Stat.) volume and page, date, and enacted bill number, if known
  • Database name (Text from: United States Public Laws)
  • Web service name (Available from: ProQuest® Congressional)
  • Date accessed by the user (Accessed: date)

For example:

"Public Law 102-240: Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991." (105 Stat. 1914; Date: 12/18/91). Text from: United States Public Laws. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 4/23/04.

Public law without a title

Many public laws do not have short or popular name titles (for example, "The Social Security Act") or the title is not part of the header information within the online source. In these cases, the title can be omitted, but the public law number must always be included. For example:

"Public Law 104-19." (109 Stat. 194; Date: 7/27/95). Text from: United States Public Laws. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 4/23/04.

Public law with a known bill number

The enacted bill number is always useful for confirming the relationship between a bill number and the specific public law being cited. The bill number can frequently be found in the header information for each public law. For example:

"Public Law 102-25: Persian Gulf Conflict Supplemental Authorization and Personnel Benefits Act of 1991." (105 Stat. 75; Date: 4/6/91; enacted S. 725). Text from: United States Public Laws. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 4/23/04.

Citing Testimony (Transcribed or Written)  

Database Information

This database contains transcripts of congressional committee hearings. These transcripts cover both statements of witnesses and the question and answer (Q&A) sessions between witnesses and Members of Congress.

For each citation, include:

  • "U.S. Congress" and the committee or subcommittee name use the name of the committee as supplied within the transcript; this will typically include the words "House" or "Senate" and the phrase "Hearing of the " as part of the committee name. These phrases should be included exactly as given. This information is usually contained in the "headline" of the document.
  • Headline (or title) provides the subject of the committee hearing; use the headline exactly as provided within the transcript
  • Witness name the affiliation or title of a witness can be omitted, particularly if the affiliation or title is not official; witness names can also be entered last name first (for example, Albright, Madeline K.) to maintain an alphabetical arrangement of works by a single author within a bibliography. (This applies only to citations from Federal Document Clearing House Congressional Testimony).
  • Hearing date
  • Database name (Text from:) there are several sources included in this database: FDCH Political Transcripts; Federal Information System Corporation Federal News Service; Federal Document Clearing House Congressional Testimony; CQ Transcriptions.
  • Web service name (Available from: ProQuest® Congressional)
  • Date accessed by the user (Accessed: date)

For example:

  • U.S. Congress. House Ways and Means Committee. "Holds Hearing on the 1993 Gasoline Tax." (Date: 5/8/96). Text from: FDCH Political Transcripts. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed 10/15/98.
  • U.S. Congress. Hearing of the Military Personnel Subcommittee of the House National Security Committee. "POW/MIA Issues." (Date: 6/19/96). Text from: Federal Information System Corporation Federal News Service. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed 10/15/98.
  • Madeleine K. Albright (U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations, Dept. of State). "Testimony on FY97, Commerce/Justice/State Appropriations before the Senate Appropriations Committee, Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies." (Date: 5/23/96). Text from: Federal Document Clearing House Congressional Testimony. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed 10/15/98.
Specific quote contained in the transcript

Since a hearing transcript may contain the statements and Q&A of committee members and witnesses, it may be necessary to quote a specific statement within the transcript. The database does not provide page or screen numbers. To quote a specific statement or segment within the transcript, provide the name of the person being quoted and the specific hearing transcript.

Include the speaker name (lists containing the complete name of each person are included at the beginning of each transcript). The affiliation or title of a witness can be omitted, particularly if the affiliation or title is not official. Titles of the Members of Congress should be included. The first speaker's name can also be entered last name first (for example, Albright, Madeline K.) to maintain an alphabetical arrangement of works by a single author within a bibliography.

For example:

  • Rep. Gilman (N.Y.). Quote from: U.S. Congress. Hearing of the House International Relations Committee. "PLO Commitment Compliance and Terrorist Threat to Israel." (Date: 3/12/96). Text from: Federal Information Systems Corporation Federal News Service. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed 10/15/98.
  • William Bennett. Quote from: U.S. Congress. Hearing of the Senate Judiciary Committee. "National Drug Control Strategy." (Date: 2/2/90). Text from: Federal Information Systems Corporation Federal News Service. Available on: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed 10/15/98.
  • Representative Floyd Spence (S.C.). Quote from: U.S. Congress. House National Security Committee. "Holds Hearing on Improving the Management and Operation of Intelligence Activities." (Date: 7/11/96). Text from: FDCH Political Transcripts. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed 10/15/98.

Citing U.S. Code  

Database Information

This database contains the full text of the United States Code Service (USCS) as published by Matthew Bender. This database is essentially the current public laws of the United States arranged by subject. The USCS is published in 50 subject titles (numbered 1-50); each title contains many sections. Section symbols (for example, @) can be omitted from the citation.

For each citation, include:

  • The title number, USCS section number, and edition date found in the header for each entry are unique identifiers and must be included in every citation; the date (for example, 1996) must also be included in each citation to verify the exact edition/version being cited.
  • Section heading (for example, "Misbranded Foods") - can be located in the header for each entry. This is additional useful information for the reader. "Parts" and "Chapters" should be omitted.
  • Database name (Text from: United States Code Service, including the statement of currency found at the top of each citation)
  • Web service name (Available from: ProQuest® Congressional)
  • Date accessed by the user (Accessed: date)

For example:

"21 USCS 343 (1996): Misbranded Food." Text from: United States Code Service. Current through 5/31/98. Available from: ProQuest® Congressional; Accessed: 10/15/1998.

Without a section heading

The USCS title, section, and edition date provide enough information to locate the exact section being cited. Thus, the section heading can be omitted.

Citing U.S. Serial Set  

Citing U.S. Serial Set (Online)

Database Information

The U.S. Serial Set is the official compilation of congressional reports and documents. At one time nearly all government publications were issued as congressional documents in the Serial Set and bear a congressional number reflecting the Congress and a unique number for the document itself (e.g., 42nd Congress, H. Doc. 242). Within the Serial Set there are documents, reports, hearings, executive documents, congressional journals, and prints. The bound volumes have been numbered consecutively since 1817.

For each citation, include:

  • "U.S.", congressional Chamber (House or Senate), and the issuing committee, if known
  • The title - when a title includes any bill number or phrases such as "conference report", "to accompany", and "with separate views", this information should be included with the title
  • Report or document number, preceded by the number of the Congress and then followed by the Serial Set volume number. For Journals include the date of the publication.
  • Database name (Text from: Serial Set Digital Collection)
  • Date accessed by the user (Accessed: date)

For example:

  • U.S. House. Select Committee on Small Business. Organization and Operation of the Small Business Administration: A Report … Pursuant to H. Res. 46. (H. Rpt. 87-2564; Serial Set 12440). Text in: ProQuest® Serial Set Digital Collection; Accessed: December 10, 2005.
  • U.S. Department of State. Statistical View of the Population of the United States from 1790-1830 Inclusive. (S. Doc.23-505; Serial Set 252). Text in: ProQuest® Serial Set Digital Collection; Accessed: December 10, 2005.
  • U.S. House. Committee on Military Affairs. Testimony Taken by the Committee on Military Affairs in Relation to the Texas Border Troubles. (H. Misc. Doc. 45-64; Serial Set 1820). Text in: ProQuest® Serial Set Digital Collection; Accessed: December 10, 2005.
  • U.S. Congress. Journal of the House of Representatives of the United States, 55th Congress, 3rd Session. December 1898. (Serial Set 3742). Text in: ProQuest® Serial Set Digital Collection; Accessed: December 10, 2005.

Note: For additional help citing U.S. Serial Set online, see Citing Committee Reports (Online) and Citing Congressional Documents (Online)

Citing U.S. Serial Set (Microfiche)

Database Information

The U.S. Serial Set is the official compilation of congressional reports and documents. At one time nearly all government publications were issued as congressional documents in the Serial Set and bear a congressional number reflecting the Congress and a unique number for the document itself (e.g., 42nd Congress, H. Doc. 242). Within the Serial Set there are documents, reports, hearings, executive documents, congressional journals, and prints. The bound volumes have been numbered consecutively since 1817. The U.S. Serial Set is available in libraries in microfiche.

For each citation, include:

  • "U.S.", congressional Chamber (House or Senate), and the issuing committee, if known
  • The title—when a title includes any bill number or phrases such as "conference report", "to accompany", and "with separate views", this information should be included with the title
  • Report or document number, preceded by the number of the Congress and then followed by the Serial Set volume number. For Journals include the date of the publication
  • The place of publication, publisher, and date of the original publication
  • The library classification number assigned to the publication

For example:

U.S. Department of State. Statistical View of the Population of the United States from 1790-1830 Inclusive. (S. Doc. 23-505; Serial Set 252) Washington; Duff Green, 1835. (CIS Serial Set microfiche 252 S.doc 505).